Final Year Project Idea's

Making project for final year is not a easy task and having an Idea of it same, so to help students Here is a list of some Electronics Project which will give student Idea for their final year project.

Final Year Project Idea's
1 Microcontroller 89c51 based 100 watt inverter.
2 Microcontroller 89c51 based 100 watt inverter with LCD display.
3 Digital multimeter using microcontroller PIC16F877.
4 High speed data logger using microcontroller PIC16F877.
5 Microcontroller based security system.
6 Microcontroller based wireless data transmitter and receiver unit.
7 Water level indicator with LCD display.
8 Water level indicator with seven segment display.
9 GSM controlled security system.
10 GSM controlled robotic arm.
11 GSM controlled land rover.
12 Home equipment control using GSM
13 High Precision stop watch using microcontroller 89C2051.
14 Solar Panel orientation device.
15 Metro rail prototype.
16 Intelligent Temperature reader and controller ( I2C interface).
17 Token display system.
18 Electronic voting machine.
19 Temperature indicator cum controller.
20 Auto door opening robot.
21 PC controlled robotic arm.
22 Moving message display (advertising display).
23 Microcontroller based traffic light controller.
24 Microcontroller based Tachometer.
25 Microcontroller based visitor counter.
26 One touch Electrical appliances control using microcontroller 89c51.
27 LIGHT, FAN CONTROL(PC INTERFACE).
28 Moving message display (PC interface).
29 IR BASED UNMANNED RAILWAY CROSSING(PC INTERFACE)
30 RADAR CONSOLE SIMULATOR(PC INTERFACE)
31 DISTANCE MEASUREMENT ROBOT(PC INTERFACE)
32 WIRELESS OBJECT COUNTER FOR INDUSTRY(PC INTERFACE)
33 REMOTE VOTING SYSTEM THROUGH MOBILE(PC INTERFACE):
34 7-SEGMENT DISPLAY(PC INTERFACE)
35 AUTO BRAKING SYSTEM(PC INTERFACE):-
36 LIGHT FINDER(PC INTERFACE):-
37 DTMF SWITCHING CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
38 ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SECURITY CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
39 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
40 FREQUENCY COUNTER MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
41 RPM COUNTER (Motor Speed) MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
42 IR REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH BOARD MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
43 RF REMOTE MICROCONTROLLER BASED
44 MICROCONTROLLER BASED FIRE ALARM.
45 TELEPHONE AUTO ANSWERING MACHINE.
46 PREPAID ENERGY METER.
47 AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT SWITCH.
48 USB POWERED ROBOTIC CAR.
49 RADAR CONSOL WITH GUN ALIGNED TOWARDS THE TARGET.
50 IR SEEKER ROBOT.
51 PATH FOLLOWER ROBOT WITH PC INTERFACE
52 DIGITAL COMBINATION LOCK.
53 SAFETY GUARD FOR THE BLIND.
54 MAINS FAILURE/RESUMPTION ALARM.
55 DTMF REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM.
56 GARAGE LIGHT AND SECURITY SYSTEM.
57 PWM-BASED SPEED CONTROL FOR DC MOTORS.
58 DEVICE SWITCHING USING PASSWORD.
59 PANEL FREQUENCY METER.
60 LASER BASED COMMUNICATION LINK.
61 COMPUTERERISED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT CONTROL.
62 SMART CELLPHONE HOLDER.
63 FULE RESERVE INDICATOR FOR VEHICLES.
64 AUTO CHANGEOVER TO GENERATOR ON MAINS FAILURE.
65 WIRELESS STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER.
66 PC-BASED SCROLLING MESSAGE DISPLAY.
67 MICROCONTROLLER BASED HOME SECURITY SYSTEM.
68 MICROCONTROLLER BASED MONITORING SYSTEM.
69 SIMPLE KEY-OPERATED GATE LOCKING SYSTEM.
70 LOAD PROTECTOR WITH REMOTE SWITCHING FACILITY.
71 PIC16F84-BASED DEVICE CODED DEVICE SWITCHING SYSTEM
72 AUDIO MIXER WITH MULTIPLE CONTROLS.
73 INFRARED INTERRUPTION COUNTER.
74 AUTOMATIC 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR STARTER.
75 SIMPLE SMOKE DECTOR.
76 PC-BASED STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER.
77 SPEED CHECKER FOR HIGHWAYS.
78 AUTOMATIC WASHBASIN TAP CONTROLLER.
79 SOUND OPERATED ON/OFF SWITCH.
80 LIFT OVERLOAD PREVENTER.
81 TWO-WHEELER SECURITY SYSTEM.
82 LOW-COST ENERGY METER USING ADE7757.
83 IR REMOTE CONTROL FOR HOME APPLIANCES.
84 PROGRAMMABLE TIMER BASED ON AT89C8252.
85 MULTIDOOR OPENING ALARM WITH INDICATOR.
86 DIGITAL CLOCK USING DISCRETE Ics.
87 VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY WITH DIGITAL CONTROL.
88 A BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER.
89 MOVING MESSAGE OVER DOT-MATRIX DISPLAY.
90 MICROCONTROLLER-BASED REAL-TIME CLOCK.
91 IR OBJECT COUNTER.
92 PIC16F76 BASED DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE INDICATOR AND CONTROLLER.
93 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION.
94 AUTOMATIC RAIN TIMER.
95 SIMPLE SHORT-WAVE TRANSMITTER.
96 AT89C2051 BASED COUNTDOWN TIMER.
97 PC-BASED REMOTE CONTROLLED STEPPER MOTOR.
98 MICROCONTROLLER-BASED TRIGGERING CIRCUIT FOR SCR PHASE CONTROL
99 REMOTE CONTROLLED FAN REGULATOR.
100 3D SURROUND SOUND SYSTEM.
101 DC CHANGEOVER SYSTEM WITH BATTERY PROTECTION UNIT.


TO DOWNLOAD AS TEXT CLICK HERE


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Get Certified Oracle Primavera Training

This is for all the readers who want to make their career in software tools,Project Management and Task Specialists and the course for you is Certified Oracle Primavera Training . This Certified Oracle Primavera Training is provided by Emerald Associates, which is master in their field and provide Project Management solutions to their client base. When you will visit their site you will see a page shown below. And as you will navigate their you will find that the site is very easy to navigate and fast loading.


Their are many Training course which Emerald Associates provides to its client and students. Some of the Training courses which are going to held soon are
1.Managing Turnaround Projects In Primavera - T100 Training Course'
September 24, 2009 - - September 25, 2009
(Edmonton, Alberta, Canada)

2.Oracle Primavera P6 Advanced 106-P (Projects) Training Course
September 28, 2009 - - September 29, 2009
(Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

3.Certified Oracle Primavera Pertmaster Risk Management - 501 Training course
September 30, 2009 - - October 02, 2009
(Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

4.Oracle Primavera P6 - Basic 102 Training Course
October 05, 2009 - - October 07, 2009
(Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

Emerald Associates also provide many free webinars time to time, to see the schedule please visit their site.

Now for the first time Primavera training Courses are also available at CANADA & USA and you can also go on-site/internal training. To get the complete course,fees,duration and location information see the below link.

1) Primavera training - USA
2) Primavera training - Canada
3) Internal Primavera training

Some of the courses at these center are
1.Pertmaster - Risk - 501
2.P6 for Turnarounds - T100
3.Primavera P6 - Basic 102
4.Primavera P6 - Adv 106-A
5.Primavera P6 - Adv 106-P
6.Primavera P6 - Adv 106-R
7.Primavera P6 - Web 101
8.Primavera P6 - Web 107
9.Contract Manager - E202
10.Cost Manager - CM100
11.Primavera SureTrak - 401
12.Primavera Prosight
13.Custom Training

You can also Choose different City in CANADA & USA
Canada City & course offered
Primavera training - Canada
Toronto, ON
Calgary, AB
Edmonton, AB
Vancouver, BC
Saskatoon, SK
Winnipeg, MB

USA City & Course Offered
Primavera training - USA
Houston, TX
Boston, MA
New York, NY
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
San Fransisco CA

I must say that these Training are very important so think about them.


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Transistor Lead Identification

There are 3 leads in a transistor viz. collector,emitter and base. When a transistor is to be connected in a circuit,it is necessary to know which terminal is which.
There are three systems in general from which we can determine which terminal is which,they are as follows

1. When the leads of the transistor are in same plane and unevenly spaced then they are identified by the position and spacing of leads. The central lead is the base lead.the collector lead is identified by the larger spacing existing between it and the base lead. The remaining lead is the emitter.see fig i

EBC

2.when the leads of the transistor are in the same plane but evenly spaced,the central lead is the base.The lead identified by dot is the collector and the remaining lead is the emitter.see fig ii

3.When the leads of the transistor are spaced around the circumference of a circle,the three leads are generally in E-B-C order clockwise from a gap.see fig iii



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Some of the Important Electronics Terms Starting With A alphabet

Some of the Important Electronics term that start with alphabet A.

Abbe condenser
1. In microscopy, a special twopiece lens that has enhanced light-gathering power.
2. A similar focusing device in an electromagnetic antenna.

Abbreviated dialing
In telephone systems, special circuits requiring fewer-than-normal dialing operations to connect subscribers.

ABETS
Acronym for airborne beacon electronic test set (NASA).

Absolute accuracy
The full-scale accuracy of a meter with respect to a primary (absolute) standard.

Absolute delay
The time elapsing between the transmission of two synchronized signals from the same station or from different stations, as in radio, radar, or LORAN. By extension, the time interval between two such signals from any source, as from a generator.

Absolute error
The difference indicated by the approximate value of a quantity minus the actual value. This difference is positive when the approximate value is higher than the exact value, and it is negative when the approximate value is lower than the exact value.

Absolute gain
Antenna gain for a given orientation when the reference antenna is isolated in space and has no main axis of propagation.

Absolute humidity
The mass of water vapor per unit volume of air.

Absolute instruction
A computer instruction that states explicitly and causes the execution of a specific operation.

Absolute magnitude
For a complex number quantity, the vector sum of the real and imaginary components (i.e., the square root of the sum of the squares of those components).

Absolute Peltier coefficient The product of the absolute Seebeck coefficient and absolute temperature of a material.

Absolute pitch
A tone in a standard scale, determined according to the rate of vibration, independent of other tones in the range of pitch.

Absolute pressure
Pressure (force per unit area) of a gas or liquid determined with respect to that of a vacuum (taken as zero).

Absolute-pressure transducer
A transducer actuated by pressure from the outputs of two different pressure sources, and whose own output is proportional to the difference between the two applied pressures.

Absolute Seebeck coefficient
The quotient, as an integral from absolute zero to the given temperature, of the Thomson coefficient of a material divided by its absolute temperature.

Absolute temperature
Temperature measured on either the Kelvin or Rankine scales, where zero represents the total absence of heat energy.


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What are Printed circuit Board (PCB)


A printed circuit board abbreviated as PCB, is a piece of Bakelite insulating board. It defines all details of the circuit & partly also the final equipment.One side or both side of PCB is covered by the copper or silver layer. The metallic conductive path serves as a conducting path for the electronic components, which are mounted on the other side of PCB.

Printed board are exclusively used for assembling electronic circuit due to its advantages, which are given below:-
1. Easy adaptability to manufacture & modular design.
2. Provide uniformity in production.
3. Lower cost.
4. Virtually eliminate wiring errors & complexity.
5. Minimize assembly & inspection time.

Types of PCB’s
Some popular PCB type are usually used in electronic applications, which are mentioned below:-

1.Single sided PCB:-
The single sided PCB’s are mostly used where manufacturing cot have to be kept of minimum. To jump over conductor tracks, components have to be utilized if this is not feasible, jumper wires are restricted economic reason.

2.Flexible PCB:-
Flexible PCB’s mainly used in military & aero space applications but now they are incorporated in many other fields like computers, industry etc. This may have the function of board ness or similar to a single PCB or a combination of both.

3.Metal core PCB:-
In metal core boards, the typical resin or fuller laminate of ordinary PCB is replaced by sheets or metal covered with insulating material.

Material of PCB:-
The number of different printed board material in common use in finite, the problem of material selection & quality control are always arises. A laminate can be obtained by pressing layers of fillers material impregnated wit resin under heat & pressure.The basic required material of copper-laid boards are-fillers, resin & copper foils.
eg:-FR-4, the most common PCB material,FR-2,Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) etc




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15 Seminar Topics

Here is a list of 15 seminar topics which will help you to give your seminar.If you want please let me know through your comments.
1.3G mobile System
2.3G wireless system
3.High Bit rate Indoor Radio Communication
4.High Data rate WLAN
5.Next generation cellular Networks

6.High Speed data compression
7.UWB radio as sensor
8.WIMAX mobile
9.A PK-SIM card based end-to-end security framework for SMS
10.WLAN security and Solution
11.method for distributing power usage across a sensor network
12.Development of a teleoperation system for agricultural vehicles
13.The Applications of Software Radio in Satellite Communication
14.The Applications of Software Radio in Satellite Communication
15.Mobile Communication using Fuzzy logic


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Free Electronics Design Software

As you started making your Own Project you must be needing some Software to design your circuit and simulate it. Here is a list of some free software which you can download and start making Projects. Some software are 30 day's Trails so if you like them you can purchase them also.


1.Resistor Color Code Interpreter
Enter the color codes of the resistor and you will get its resistance. This calculator also shows the equivalent values of 2 resistors that are connected in parallel and in series.

2.Multilayer Air Core Inductor Calculator
Calculate the number of turns, DC resistance and other inductor data based on the input data of the inductance, coil inner diameter, coil length and wire gauge.

3.Cadence OrCAD
OrCAD is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation. The software is used mainly to create electronic circuits

4.Spice III simulator from Linear Technology
SwitcherCAD™ III is a high performance Spice III simulator, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for easing the simulation of switching regulators.

5.Sonnet Lite EM analysis Software
Sonnet Lite is a free feature-limited version of Sonnet's professional Sonnet Suite, which provides Electromagnetic analysis that is able to analyse predominantly planar high-frequency designs from 1 MHz through several THz. PCB trace crosstalk analysis, Microstrip matching networks and Microwave circuit discontinuities amongst others can also be analysed.

6.Convert Your PC Into A Dual Trace Oscilloscope
Convert your PC into a dual-trace storage oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer. It uses your computer's sound card as analog-to-digital converter, presenting a real-time waveform or spectrum of the signal - which can be music, speech, or output from an electronic circuit.

7.FiltersCAD Software For Designing Filters
FiltersCAD is a comprehensive PC based filter synthesis software package that provides active circuit synthesis.

8.5Spice Analog Circuit Simulation Software
5Spice is a graphical user interface software that offers easy to use analog circuit simulation for the electronic circuit designer. 5Spice provides the analysis capabilities needed by experienced circuit designers while remaining easy to use. The focus is on analog circuit analysis and circuit design at the component level.


9.ExpressPCB PCB Layout Editor Software
The ExpressPCB schematic and PCB design software is very quick to learn and completely free! Download a fully functional version here.

10.B2spice ver5.0
B² Spice v.5 is the easiest, most user-friendly Spice program on the market.
It is a very great tool with lots of features.And my favorite too.


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How do satellite phone Works

Did you ever thought that how satellite phone works.
How they make call when there is no network?
How they work in Mountain?
The working of satellite phone is is very simple.

When an individual makes a call from a satellite phone the signal is sent to the satellites of that particular company. These satellites process the call and relay it back to Earth via a gateway. The gateway then routes the call to its destination using the regular PSTN(Public switched Telephone Network).
Globalstar,Iridium are some of the company which provide satellite phone services.
NOTE**The Globalstar constellation is made up of 48 satellites and every call is relayed by up to 4 satellites down to Globalstar gateways on Earth.
So now don't worry of network problem.

To know your nearest service provider visit
Globalstar website


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USB Circuit Design

USB is an acronym for Universal Serial Bus and is the technology that enables the connections between computer and external devices over a cable using bi serial transmission.USB was implemented in all personal computers since 1997. Windows 98 was the first Windows that has built in drivers to support its implementation.
It has 4 connections to it i.e. Vcc, Gnd, Data + and Data -. The devices can be connected to the computer without turning OFF the personal computer. It is able to support data speed from 12Mbps (USB1.0, USB1.1) up to 480Mbps(USB2.0). This type of connection is fast replacing RS232 and parallel port in many PCs. As it is now, many laptops no longer has any provision for RS232 connections.
USB2.0 version standard was released on April 2000 and is an upgrade version of USB1.1. It has better bandwidth and data transmission speed up to 480 Mbps compared to USB1.1 which has only 12 Mbps. This makes it an ideal applications for multimedia and storage devices. It is backward compatible to USB1.0/USB1.1 as it supports 1.5Mbps, 12Mbps and 480Mbps.

The following USB2.0 reference project from Freescale Semiconductor describes in detailed the design of a USB2.0 Card Reader. It support cards such as Compactflash, Memory Stick, Memory Stick Duo, Magic Gate, Secure Digital, MultimediaCard and SmartMedia. The schematic and source code of the reference projects are provided. This USB Circuit Design Project is a good reference for students who need to do an electronics project in their final year of studies.


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Mains transformer in electronic projects

How to use a mains transformer (for instance 110-230 Volt and 50-60 Hz) in an electronic project. Do's and dont's with mains transformers in home brew electronics.

Saturation of the core means that the core gets more or less permanenty magnetised. In that case the magnetic field is not built up (and decreased) quickly enough (50 Hz -60 Hz), the permanent field acts as a sort of "brake" for quick magnetic changes and the power cannot be well transferred from the primary to the secundary coil. The core gets heated up more or less, it gives loss of energy. On high(er) frequencies (16 Khz and more) transformers with a ferrite core give very good results with low loss of energy in the core.



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Digital Signal Processing

DSP or Digital Signal Processing is the technology of manipulating analog information that has been obtained from sources such as sound or photography data that have been converted into digital format. It uses complex mathematical formulas to the raw data to form another type of modified output. It uses the compression technique to transmits and display information effectively.
Products such as video conferencing uses complex hardware and software DSP processing. Many of these products have dedicated DSP chips where they are placed into the sound card that provide extra audio processing power to reduce the loading of processing in the CPU. In the total system solution, the DSP technology collects the raw data, process it, compress it, trasmit it and display it once again in the various digital display devices.


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Awesome Electronics Workshop LCD and GPS

Bre Pettis teams up with Hardware Hacker Joe Grand to show you how to integrate LCDs and GPS into your electronics projects. Then they put these two things together on a basic stamp and create a portable GPS tracking system and go geocaching!


so don't miss it



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electronic products a presentation

It contains information about all the electronic products.
what is it.how it works
CHECK IT OUT !


Electronics Electronics Kantharaj It contains information about all the electronic products.
what is it.how it works





Direct Download


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What is CSMA ?

The CSMA (Carrier sense multiple Access) protocol operates on the principle of carrier sensing. In this protocol, a station (user) listens to see the presence of transmission (carrier) on the cable and decides to act accordingly

Type of CSMA
1. Non persistent CSMA :-
In this scheme , if a station wants to transmit a frame and it finds that the channel is busy then it has to wait for fixed interval of time. After this time, it again checks the status of the channel and if the channel is free then it transmits.

2. 1- Persistent CSMA :-
In this scheme,which want to transmit,continuously monitors the channel until it is idle and then transmit immediately. The disadvantage of this strategy is that if two stations transmit simultaneously a collision takes place.

3. P-Persistent CSMA :-
The possibility of such collision and retransmissions is reduced in the P-persistent CSMA. In t his scheme, all the waiting stations are not allowed to transmit simultaneously as soon as the channel becomes idle. A station is assumed to be transmitting with a probability p.


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101 PROJECTS TO BE MADE

PROJECTS LIST of 101 project to be made

S.No. Project Name
1 Microcontroller 89c51 based 100 watt inverter.
2 Microcontroller 89c51 based 100 watt inverter with LCD display.
3 Digital multimeter using microcontroller PIC16F877.
4 High speed data logger using microcontroller PIC16F877.
5 Microcontroller based security system.
6 Microcontroller based wireless data transmitter and receiver unit.
7 Water level indicator with LCD display.
8 Water level indicator with seven segment display.
9 GSM controlled security system.
10 GSM controlled robotic arm.
11 GSM controlled land rover.
12 Home equipment control using GSM
13 High Precision stop watch using microcontroller 89C2051.
14 Solar Panel orientation device.
15 Metro rail prototype.
16 Intelligent Temperature reader and controller ( I2C interface).
17 Token display system.
18 Electronic voting machine.
19 Temperature indicator cum controller.
20 Auto door opening robot.
21 PC controlled robotic arm.
22 Moving message display (advertising display).
23 Microcontroller based traffic light controller.
24 Microcontroller based Tachometer.
25 Microcontroller based visitor counter.
26 One touch Electrical appliances control using microcontroller 89c51.
27 LIGHT, FAN CONTROL(PC INTERFACE).
28 Moving message display (PC interface).
29 IR BASED UNMANNED RAILWAY CROSSING(PC INTERFACE)
30 RADAR CONSOLE SIMULATOR(PC INTERFACE)
31 DISTANCE MEASUREMENT ROBOT(PC INTERFACE)
32 WIRELESS OBJECT COUNTER FOR INDUSTRY(PC INTERFACE)
33 REMOTE VOTING SYSTEM THROUGH MOBILE(PC INTERFACE):
34 7-SEGMENT DISPLAY(PC INTERFACE)
35 AUTO BRAKING SYSTEM(PC INTERFACE):-
36 LIGHT FINDER(PC INTERFACE):-
37 DTMF SWITCHING CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
38 ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SECURITY CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
39 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
40 FREQUENCY COUNTER MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
41 RPM COUNTER (Motor Speed) MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
42 IR REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH BOARD MICRO CONTROLLER BASED
43 RF REMOTE MICROCONTROLLER BASED
44 MICROCONTROLLER BASED FIRE ALARM.
45 TELEPHONE AUTO ANSWERING MACHINE.
46 PREPAID ENERGY METER.
47 AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT SWITCH.
48 USB POWERED ROBOTIC CAR.
49.RADAR CONSOL WITH GUN ALIGNED TOWARDS THE TARGET.
50.IR SEEKER ROBOT.


TO DOWNLOAD AS TEXT CLICK HERE

DIRECT DOWNLOAD


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Electronic Parts Fundamental & Applications

As beginners to electronic parts and the construction of electronics projects, sometimes one may just take all the information provided in the magazines and start to build the project.

The schematics and PCB provided may not be understood fully and if there is a mistake in the information, one may not be able to troubleshoot the printed circuit board. Therefore, it is important that one understands why each electronic parts or electronic component is used and its unique characteristics.It is also important to know what electronic parts are similar so that in the event that the particular part is no longer available in the market, one can find similar or equivalent parts as its substitution.

The list below will show in detailed some of the major components that are usually used in the construction of electronics project. It will describe the fundamentals of each electronic parts and its applications. Information as to the type of tests that each part should be stressed to will also be provided. Some of the components are diodes, speakers, connectors, batteries, solder, relays, seven segment displays, transformers, inductors, liquid crystal displays, transistors, operational amplifiers, capacitors, potentiometer, heatsinks, fuse, thermistors, resistors, LEDs and resonators. Other parts will be added from time to time, so please come back to this site whenever you need to.

1.Batteries
2.capacitor
3.Transistor
4.diode
5.Amplifier
6.Fuses
7.Light sensor
8.LED
etc and many more

http://www.electronics-project-design.com/images/electronics.jpg


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Spectrum Analyzer

The main Features are
1.To produce a display of the frequency contents of an input signal.
2. The analyzer can be described as a frequency-selective, peak-responding voltmeter calibrated to display the rms value of a sine wave.
3.The oscilloscope plots the amplitude in the time domain whereas the spectrum analyzer plots the amplitude in the frequency domain.
4. The analyzer is a wide band, very sensitive receiver.
5.It works on the principle of "super-heterodyne receiver" to convert higher frequencies up to several 10s of GHz to measurable quantities.
6. The received frequency spectrum is slowly swept through a range of pre-selected frequencies, converting the selected frequency to a measurable DC level and displaying it.



A picture of a typical spectrum analyzer is as shown below.




This analyzer is useful in studying interference and in troubleshooting radio equipment. It is a superheterodyne receiver with special filters, attenuators, amplifiers and display.

A typical block diagram of a spectrum analyzer is as shown in the Figure below.




It has an input attenuator, followed by the input filter. The RF signal is fed into the mixer along with the swept local oscillator signal. The sweep generator also controls the display so that the horizontal sweep of the display is synchronized to the sweep of the local oscillator. The bandwidth filter determines the basic resolution of the spectrum analyzer. After the bandwidth filter, the signal is fed to the logarithmic amplifier. This allows a greater range of signal amplitude to be displayed on the screen of the spectrum analyzer. The signal is then detected, cleaned up by the video filter and applied to the display circuitry.


Applications

a) Device Frequency Response Measurements

Measuring the amplitude response (typically measured in dbm) against frequency of device. The device may be anything from a broadband amplifier to a narrow band filter.

b) Microware Tower Monitoring

Measuring the transmitted power and received power of a Microware tower.

c) Interference Measurements

It can be used to verify identify and interferences. Any such interfering signals need to be minimized before going ahead with the site work. Interference can be created by a number of different sources, such as telecom microwave towers, TV stations, or airport guidance systems.

d) Other measurements could be in the areas of Return-loss measurement, satellite antenna alignment, Spurious signals measurement, Harmonic measurements and Inter-modulation measurements.
Points to consider before buying the spectrum analyzer

1.Stability

Instrument stability is important for maintaining a steady signal display on the screen over time. Instability will manifest itself as a constant drift of the display, especially when lower scan-width settings are used. The scan width refers to the frequency span per division, or the sweep width setting of the instrument. For example, if the scan width is set to 1MHz/div, and 10 horizontal divisions are on the graticule, then the total scan width is 10MHz.

2.Frequency range

The instrument must be able to cover the desired frequency range. Typically, the spectrum analyzer used in land mobile radio work should cover the frequency range of 100kHz to 1,000MHz.

3.Input Power Range

This is the range of input power that could be fed to the analyzer input connector. Normally, this ranges from -100 dBm to +10 dBm. Beyond the lower limits, the spectrum analyzer may not be able to identify the signal from back ground noise. If you feed signals beyond the maximum specified range, it is possible that the input mixer is saturated and the reading shown on the spectrum analyzer may not represent the actual power levels accurately. There is also a likelihood of damaging the front-end component of the spectrum analyzer. Use an external attenuator if it is required to measure power levels beyond the specified limits. Note that spectrum analyzers are available for various input signal power levels.

4.Harmonics

The frequency harmonics is a measure of accuracy of the spectrum analyzer. Normally, the harmonics are greater than 30 dB below the desired signal. The harmonics add to the measurement uncertainty, and should be kept to the minimum.

5.Scan width

The scan width determines how much of the spectrum is displayed on the analyzer screen. At 100MHz/div, the total sweep width is 1,000MHz. Expect to see lots of clutter at that scan width from an off-the-air display-especially with the instrument set for medium to high sensitivity. Such a setting might be used to search for an interference signal or to look at the harmonic of a transmitter signal while simultaneously trying to view the fundamental. The lowest scan-width setting is important, too. For example, to view the individual sidebands of a FM transmitter, modulated by a 1kHz tone, the scan width should be set to 1kHz/div to separate the individual sidebands by one division. Some spectrum analyzers do not provide such a low scan-width setting because they don't have sufficient resolution required for viewing this type of display.

6.Resolution bandwidth

This is an important specification for a spectrum analyzer. The resolution bandwidth determines how far apart two or more signals must be to be resolved into separate and distinct displays on the analyzer. For example, if two signals are 1kHz apart, a spectrum analyzer with a resolution bandwidth of 10kHz could not resolve the signals into separate displays. Generally speaking, the resolution bandwidth should be about 10% of the signal separation for good resolution on the analyzer display. For example, to display two or more signals that are 1kHz apart, the resolution bandwidth should be set to 100Hz, and the scan width should be set to 1kHz/div.

7.Sensitivity

Spectrum analyzer sensitivity will determine the minimum level of a signal that can produce a usable display. This will, in turn, depend on the noise floor or noise figure of the spectrum analyzer. The minimum detectable signal will not be less than the noise floor of the analyzer. The noise floor will depend on the resolution bandwidth and the video filter used (the greater the resolution bandwidth, the higher the noise floor). All other things remaining the same, decreasing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10 will drop the noise floor by 10dB. For example, if the noise floor is 2110dB at a resolution bandwidth of 10kHz, then the noise floor will drop to 2120dBm at a resolution bandwidth of 1kHz. A point is reached where further dropping the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10 does not result in a 10dB improvement in the noise floor. If a signal input is equal to the noise floor of the analyzer (at a particular resolution bandwidth setting), then a 3dB "bump" will appear on the analyzer display. Because the input signal is equal in level to the noise floor, the two factors combine to be twice as much, or 3dB greater, than the noise floor


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Oscilloscope

The Oscilloscope is a graph displaying device that display the electrical signal based on the input to its probes. It shows in real time how signals change over time. Usually the Y axis represents the voltage and the X axis time. Most osc. have intensity or brightness that can be adjusted. The display is caused by the spot that periodically sweeps the display from left to right.


In the design of electronics project, the osc. is one of the most handy equipment that is worth investing. Its functions are :

a) Shows and calculate the frequency and amplitude of an oscillating signal.
b) Shows the voltage and time of a particular signal. This function is the main used of all the functions described here.
c) Helps to troubleshoot any malfunction components of a project by looking at the expected output after a particular component.
d) Shows the content of the AC voltage or DC voltage in a signal.

When there is a change in the height of the waveform, it means that the voltage has changed. If the line is horizontal, it means that there is no change in voltage for that period of time. Some of the common waveforms that are measured using an oscilloscope are as shown below.

There are basically 2 types of osc. namely analog or digital type. Analog uses continuously variable voltages. Digital uses discrete binary numbers that represent voltage samples. Analog osc. works by directly applying a voltage being measured to an electron beam moving across the osc. screen. The voltage deflects the beam up and down proportionally, tracing the waveform on the screen. Digital osc. samples the waveform and uses an analog to digital converter to convert the voltage measured into digital format. It then uses this digital format to display the waveform. It enables one to capture and view events that may happen only once. They can process the digital waveform data or send the data to a computer for processing. Also, they can store the digital waveform data for later viewing and printing.

Specifications Of Oscilloscope

In choosing to buy an osc., the designer needs to understand the terms used and what they are. By understanding the terms, one will be able to compare the features offered and its price.

a) Bandwidth The bandwidth tells the frequency range the osc. can accurately measures. When the frequency of the measured signal increases, the ability of the oscilloscope to accurately respond decreases.

b) Gain Accuracy The gain accuracy shows how accurately the vertical system attenuates or amplifies a signal. This is shown in percentage error.

c) Time Base or Horizontal Accuracy The time base or horizontal accuracy indicates how accurately the horizontal system displays the timing of a signal. This is shown in percentage error.

d) Rise Time Rise time is another way of describing the useful frequency range of an oscilloscope. Rise time need to be considered in the measuring of pulses and steps. It cannot accurately display pulses with rise times faster than the specified rise time of the oscilloscope.

d) Vertical Sensitivity The vertical sensitivity indicates how much the vertical amplifier can amplify a weak signal. Vertical sensitivity is usually given in millivolts (mV) per division. The smallest voltage a general purpose oscilloscope can detect is typically about 2 mV per vertical screen division.

e) Sweep Speed This specification indicates how fast the trace can sweep across the screen. It is usually shown in nanosec per div.

f) Sample Rate In digital type, the sampling rate shows how many samples per second the ADC can acquire. Maximum sample rates are usually given in megasamples per second (MS/s). The faster the oscilloscope can sample, the more accurately it can represent the fine details of a signal. The minimum sample rate may also be important if you need to look at slowly changing signals over long periods of time. Typically, the sample rate changes with changes made to the sec/div control to maintain a constant number of waveform points in the waveform record.

g) Record Length The record length of a digital oscilloscope show the number of waveform points the oscilloscope is able to acquire per record. The maximum record length depends on its memory. There is a trade off in acquiring either a detailed picture of a signal for a short period of time or a less detailed picture for a longer period of time.

Tips on using an oscilloscope

a) Probe the input to the test point on the oscilloscope to assure that a channel and probe are working. Normally every set comes with this test point with fixed voltage and frequency.

b) Set the options of a channel to "DC" coupling, with automatic triggering. Increase the channel's volts per division until a line appears. Set the sweep time per division near the speed of the signal, and then adjust the volts per division until the event appears at a useful size.

c) The bandwidth of the test probes should equal or exceed the bandwidth of the oscilloscope's input amplifiers.

d) The capacitance of the wire in the test probe can cause an oscilloscope to inaccurately display high speed signals. Use the test output that produces a square wave to adjust the probe by ensuring that the corners of the square wave appear square, exhibiting no overshoot or undershoot.

e) The ground connection of the oscilloscope should be attached to the ground of the circuit under test. Most test leads for oscilloscopes have the ground clip built into their end. To accurately probe high speed signals, the ground lead must be kept as short as possible; at frequencies above 100 MHz, the flying ground lead should be removed and replaced with a small ground pin which slips over the ground ring at the tip of the probe.

f) Most oscilloscope has connection to mains earth of which the test lead ground is also attached to mains earth. If the circuit under test is also referenced to mains earth, then attaching the probe ground to any signal will effectively act like a short circuit to earth causing the earth circuit breaker to trip. This is solved by using an isolating transformer or special probe that has this isolation.

g) AC coupling blocks any DC in the signal.

h) DC coupling must be used when measuring a DC voltage.

i) Trigger the correct channel and set the trigger delay to zero. After that adjust the trigger level until the desired event triggers.


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Test and Measurement

Measurement generally involves an instrument as a physical means to determine a quantity or a variable. The instrument serves as an extension to the human senses and enables the designer to determine the value of an unknown quantity which the unaided human cannot measure. In short, an instrument is a device to determine the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable. Typical measuring instruments that are widely used in electronics project design are oscilloscope, multimeters, logic analyzers, curve tracers and spectrum analyzers.
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Test and measurement equipments are generally used to simulate the actual inputs to a system or device under test. These test equipments will enable the designer to test the simulated real life condition. Typical test equipments that are used in the electronics design are function generators, signal generators, RF amplifier and a host of other specialized equipments.

Some of the common test and measurement equipments that are used are listed below.
1. Multimeter
2.oscilloscope
3.spectrum Analyzer
4.Logic Analyzer
5.Audio & RF signal generator
6.



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How a call is made !

Today we all use mobile phone's but hardly only few of them knows how a cellular Telephone call is made
Now i will share with you that how a call is made Here you go.

When a mobile phone is turned on, but it is not engaged in a call, it 1st scans the group of FORWARD CONTROL CHANNEL and connect with the strongest channel.when the signal drops the process is repeated & it connect with the strongest signal FCC.



Now when a telephone call is placed to a mobile user,the MSC (mobile switching center) Dispatches the request to all base stations in the cellular system. The MIN (mobile identification No.),which is subscriber telephone no, is then broadcast as a paging message over all of the FCC throughout cellular system. now the mobile receives the paging message and responds by identifying itself over the reverse control channel(RCC). Now the Base station receives the acknowledgment and tell the MSC about the handshake. The MSC instruct the Base station to move the call to an unused voice channel within the cell. At this point ,the BS signals the mobile to change the frequency to an unused forward & reverse voice channel pair, at this alert signal is transmitted to the called subscriber.

Terms used :
FCC-forward control channel
RCC-Reverse control channel
FVC- forward voice channel
RVC-reverse voive channel
MIN- mobile identification no.
BS- base station (mobile towers)
MSC- mobile switching center or main switching center.

Note:-
FCC & RCC are only 5% of the total no. of channels



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